Yash Singh

The author of this article is a Law Student, Faculty of Law, University of Allahabad.

In computer scienceartificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".
Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.

History of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence was first proposed by John McCarthy in 1956 in his first academic conference on the subject. The idea of machines operating like human beings began to be the center of scientist’s mind and whether if it is possible to make machines have the same ability to think and learn by itself was introduced by the mathematician Alan Turing. Alan Turing was able to put his hypotheses and questions into actions by testing whether “machines can think”? After series of testing (later was called as Turing Test) it turns out that it is possible to enable machines to think and learn just like humans. Turing Test uses the pragmatic approach to be able to identify if machines can respond as humans.

How Artificial Intelligence Works
“AI is a family of technologies that perform tasks that are thought to require intelligence if performed by humans," explains Vasant Honavar, a professor and director of the Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory at Penn State University.
According to Honavar, there are two key pieces to AI.
1.       One of them is the engineering part — that is, building tools that utilize intelligence in some way.
2.      The other is the science of intelligence, or rather, how to enable a machine to come up with a result comparable to what a human brain would come up with, even if the machine achieves it through a very different process.
AI is "basically the results of our attempting to understand and emulate the way that the brain works and the application of this to giving brain-like functions to otherwise autonomous systems.
AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data.

Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence
AI offers reliability, cost- effectiveness, solve complicated problems, and make decisions; in addition, AI restrict data from getting lost. AI is applied nowadays in most fields whether business or engineering. One of the great tools in AI is called “reinforcement learning” which is based on testing success and failure in real life to increase the reliability of applications. Unfortunately, AI is limited with its capability and functionality.
Although Artificial Intelligence made our lives much easier and saved us more time than ever, scientists are predicting that by the huge dependency on AI humanity could extinct. Scientists argue that by having a AI machines, people will be jobless and that will conclude in losing the sense of living. Since machines are learning and doing things more efficiently and effectively in a timely manner, this could be the reason of our extinction.

Artificial Intelligence will revolutionize the way in whichdifferent companies across compete and grow across theworld by representing a new production factor that candrive business profitability . Inorder to realize the opportunity of AI, most the companies
in the world are already developing actively in variousArtificial Intelligence strategies .In addition, they shouldfocus on developing responsible. AI systems aligned withethical and moral values that lead to positive feedback andempower people to do what they know best such as innovation.With the introduction of succesful. Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions, many industries acrossthe earth can benefit from increased profitability and stillcount on economic growth.

Why is artificial intelligence important:-
AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data. 
·       AI adds intelligence to existing products.
·        AI adapts through progressive learning algorithms to let the data do the programming.
·        AI analyzes more and deeper data using neural networks that have many hidden layers.
·        AI achieves incredible accuracy through deep neural networks – which was previously impossible.
·        AI gets the most out of data.
How Artificial Intelligence Is Being Used
Every industry has a high demand for AI capabilities – especially question answering systems that can be used for legal assistance, patent searches, risk notification and medical research. AI is relevant to any intellectual task. Modern artificial intelligence techniques are pervasive and are too numerous to list here. Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect.
High-profile examples of AI include autonomous vehicles (such as drones and self-driving cars), medical diagnosis, creating art (such as poetry), proving mathematical theorems, playing games (such as Chess or Go), search engines (such as Google search), online assistants (such as Siri), image recognition in photographs, spam filtering, predicting flight delays, prediction of judicial decisions, targeting online advertisements.


AI in healthcare is often used for classification, whether to automate initial evaluation of a CT scan or EKG or to identify high risk patients for population health.  
Artificial intelligence is assisting doctors. According to Bloomberg Technology, Microsoft has developed AI to help doctors find the right treatments for cancer. Microsoft is working on a project to develop a machine called "Hanover”. Its goal is to memorize all the papers necessary to cancer and help predict which combinations of drugs will be most effective for each patient.


Advancements in AI have contributed to the growth of the automotive industry through the creation and evolution of self-driving vehicles. As of 2016, there are over 30 companies utilizing AI into the creation of self-driving cars. A few companies involved with AI include TeslaGoogle, and Apple.

Finance and economics

The use of AI in banking can be traced back to 1987 when Security Pacific National Bank in US set-up a Fraud Prevention Task force to counter the unauthorized use of debit cards. Programs like Kasisto and Moneystream are using AI in financial services.
Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. AI can react to changes overnight or when business is not taking place. 


The cyber security arena faces significant challenges in the form of larges scale hacking attacks of different types which harm organizations of all kinds and create billions of dollars in business damage. Artificial intelligence and Natural Language Processing (NLP) has begun to be used by security companies - for example SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) solutions. The more advanced of these solutions use AI and NLP to automatically sort the data in networks into high risk and low risk information. This enables security teams to focus on the attacks that have the potential to do real harm to the organization, and not become victims of attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS)Malware and others.

Artificial intelligence in government consists of applications and regulation. Artificial intelligence paired with facial recognition systems may be used for mass surveillance. This is already the case in some parts of China. An artificial intelligence has also competed in the Tama City mayoral elections in 2018.

Law-related professions

Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming a mainstay component of law-related professions. In some circumstances, this analytics-crunching technology is using algorithms and machine learning to do work that was previously done by entry-level lawyers.

Video games

In video games, artificial intelligence is routinely used to generate dynamic purposeful behavior in non-player characters (NPCs). In addition, well-understood AI techniques are routinely used for pathfinding.


The main military applications of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are to enhance C2, Communications, Sensors, Integration and Interoperability. Artificial Intelligence technologies enable coordination of sensors and effectors, threat detection and identification, marking of enemy positions, target acquisition, coordination and deconfliction of distributed Join Fires between networked combat vehicles and tanks also inside Manned and Unmanned Teams (MUM-T).



In the hospitality industry, Artificial Intelligence based solutions are used to reduce staff load and increase efficiency by cutting repetitive tasks frequency, trends analysis, guest interaction, and customer needs prediction. Hotel services backed by Artificial Intelligence are represented in the form of a chatbot, application,etc.

Working together with AI
Artificial intelligence is not here to replace us. It augments our abilities and makes us better at what we do. Because AI algorithms learn differently than humans, they look at things differently. They can see relationships and patterns that escape us. This human, AI partnership offers many opportunities. It can:
·         Bring analytics to industries and domains where it’s currently underutilized.
·    Improve the performance of existing analytic technologies, like computer vision and time series  analysis.
·        Break down economic barriers, including language and translation barriers.
·        Augment existing abilities and make us better at what we do.
·        Give us better vision, better understanding, better memory and much more.  

There is a great increase in the discussion about the importance of AI in the recent time leading to future discussions about the existence of Artificial Intelligence in the world. The idea of creating AI is aimed at making human life easier.With the introduction and successful implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions, many industries in the world are and will benefit from increased profitability and will still have good economic growth rates. In addition, artificial Intelligence opportunities will be aiming at innovative, human centered approaches and measuring the applicability of robotic technology to various industries and companies in the entire world. Artificial Intelligence will also revolutionize the way different companies in the world grow and compete by representing new production ideas that will derive profitability in businesses. s Artificial Intelligence systems will help the entire world to industrial sector to presuppose the available symbolic structures such as, the ability to reason and also knowledge existence. In addition, at the time Artificial Intelligence acquires intelligence greater or equal to that of human beings, there will be a concern about social and political change .In furthermore, AI will have all the advantages of colonize the world without the help of human beings. In the near future, self-replicating AI could be made where human colonies beyond the earth will never have potentials to fight in the free space with critical terms. The future Artificial Intelligence in various regions the world may be as a result of various investigation technologies such as stellar travel, teleportation and others.

AI nowadays is being implemented in almost every field of study through several models such as SVM and ANN. We should be able to proceed with knowing and understanding the consequences of every technological trend. In my opinion, we are in the AI revelation era and therefore; we should adopt into this change and welcome it too by embracing AI and moving toward a better society.